Images of Hellenic war of independence



Our Holy City still remains in barbaric rule

Skoufas, Tsakalof and Xanthos in Odessos-1814 found a secret organization -Philiki Etaireia-, aiming the liberation of Greece

Secret School (Krifo Sxolio), where the Hellenic-Orthodox spirit remains alive

Hellenes (Romaioi) Klephtes were always free on the mountains

Constantinopolitan (Romaios) Alexandros Ypsilantes enters Iasio-Moldavia, 22 Feb 1821, and starts Greek War of Independence

23 March 1821. Petrompeis Mavromichales, Kolokotronis, Papaflessas liberate the city of Kalamata

24 March 1821, Patras. Bishop Germanos declares Greek Revolution. Turks find refuge in the castle of the city

Panourgias liberates Salona (Amfissa) in 27 March and Diakos liberates Livadia in 31 March

10 Apr, Patriarch Gregorios is one of thousands of Orthodox Romioi that are massacred in Constantinople, Adrianople, Smyrne, Kydonies and elsewhere in MicraAsia

21 April. At the battle of Thermopulae Athanasios Diakos (with his sword broken) is captured alive and is impaled by turks. Bishop of Salona Isaias is killed

Shipowner Bubulina blockades Nafplion. In 23 April her son is killed at the battle of Argos

8 May, Odysseas Androutsos with 120 men fights in Gravia's inn against 8000 of OmerVrioni Pasha

12 May, Kolokotronis, Anagnostaras and Plapoutas destroy turkish army in Valtetsi, and on 18 May 1821 Nikitaras fights turks in Doliana near Tripolis

27 May, Papanikolis Dimitrios from Psara island, sets fire with his fireship on a turkish frigate in Eresos, killing all the turkish sailors

29 May, Andreas Metaxas from Kefalinia island, fights turkalbanians at Lala, west Peloponessus

Greek Orthodox students die for liberty in Dragatsani-Moldavia, 7/6/1821

Hellen (Romaios) fighting tyrants (painting by french Delaqroix)

9 July, Bishop of Cyprus Kyprianos is hanged. Hundreds of christians are beheaded

15 July, Aggelis Govginas with 400 men fights against 2000 turkalbanians of Omervrioni at Brisakia of Evoia island

4 July, KaraAlis admiral of turkish fleet, fails against Samos island, whose defence is organized by Lykourgos Logothetis

23 July, turks of Monemvasia surrender the city to Dimitrios Ypsilantis. Greeks transfer them to the coast of Mikra Asia

25 August, Gouras and Androutsos with 800 men destroy the turkish army of Behrem Pasha (4000 men) at Basilika

8 Sept, Olympios blows the monastery of Sekkos in Moldavia. He prefers to die than to surrender

23 Sept 1821, Hellenes (Romioi) conquer Tripolis, capital of Peloponessus, 32000 of turkish population are massacred

7 Noem. Makedones, under the leadership of Emmanuel Pappas, are defeated at Kassandra's peninsula. Thousands of the greek population are slaughtered or sold as slaves

11 Jan 1822. Ilias Mavromichales, son of Petrompeis (leader of Mani), is killed at Karistos Evoia. Turks cut his head and send it to sultan

14 Jan 1822. The castle of ancient Korinthos is seized by Romioi (Hellenes). Plapoutas, Panourgias, Kolokotronis lead the operation

15 Jan 1822. First National Assembly at Epidaurus

20 Feb 1822. Miaoulis, Tompazis, Saxtouris, Kriezis fight at gulf of Patras against turkish-algerian-tenisian-libyan fleet

9 March 1822. Kolokotronis, Plapoutas, Petmezas, Deligianis fight at Patras, where they fail to capture the castle

6 April. Abdoulpasha with the help of Jews of Thessaloniki burns 120 villages and Naousa, city of Makedonia. 5000 massacred and 5000 women/children sold slaves

April 1822. 50000 of unarmed population of Chios island are slaughtered without mercy. 50000 women and children are sold to slavebazaars

6 Jun 1822. Konstantinos Kanaris burns with his fireship, the tuskish admiralship, Turkish admiral is also killed

10 Jun 1822. Turks surrender the castle of Acropolis and Athens is at last liberated

June 1822. Xoursitpasha with 14000 turkalbanians lay siege to Suli(Epirus region). Romaioi try to help and are defeated at Peta battle. Many philellenes are killed

In a time that media didn't exist, simple persons could discern right from wrong. While European States supported Ottoman Empire under the status of Holly Alliance, simple European and American people as well as intelectuals (American Samuel Howe, British Lord Byron, Gaite, Victor Ugho, etc) supported the fight of hellenic people for liberation. 300 phillelenes (142 Germans, 42 Italians, 11 Swiss, 60 French, 3 Americans, 21 British, 11 Polish, 10 Scandinavians, 17 Dutch etc) are estimated to have been killed

French Valest is captured wounded at Rethimnon-Crete and later is beheaded. (April 1822)

26 July 1822. Romaioi under the leadership of Kolokotronis,Nikitaras,Papaflessas,Ypsilantes, crush Dramalis pasha's army of 30000 men at Dervenakia, near Argos

7 Aug 1822. Anagnostis Petimezas and his son (age 17), are killed at Vasilika near Kiato

28 Oct. Kanaris burns a turkish fregate at Tenedos island, near Ellispontos-Dardanellia. 1600 sailors were killed

30 Nov 1822, Kolokotronis and Staikopoulos seize the castle of Nafplion, and the city is surrendered. Prisoners are transferred to the coast of Mikra Asia

Mesologhion, 15 Dec 1822. Turks under Omervrionis and Kioutaxis pasha, lead 12000 men to capture the city, but they fail. The city is defended succesfully by Markos Mpotsaris, Lontos, Razikotsikas, Makris, Zaimis, and 2000 other men.

January 1823. Karaiskakis fights turks at Aghios Vlassios-Agrafa. 200 enemies, under the leadership of Ismail Pliasa pasha are killed

29 March 1823. Second National Assembly at Astros

Dispute between military party and pilitical party. This dispute caused civil war, which highly damaged the revolution. Mavrokordatos was the main responsible for the civil war.

May 1823. Turks under Kioutaxes Pasha invade Thessaly with great success, while Yusuf Perkoftsales Pasha invades eastern Rumeli. Karystos of Euvoia is burnt to ashes, and Trikeri of Thessaly capitulates

Mustaes pasha of Scondra leads 13000 Albanians and camps at Karpenesion. Markos Botsares attacks with his Suliotes, at night of 9 August. He is mortally wounded while he reached close enough to kill Mustaes pasha himself

October 1823. Mustaes lays siege to Anatolikon, near Mesologhion, but Suliotes Kitsos Tzavellas drives him away

24 December 1823. Lord Byron enters Mesologhion. Poet, philhellene, liberal, human rights supporter comes to help people who want just to live decently. He is escorted by L. Stanhope

During 1824 battles take place in Crete island. Hushein Pashas destroyes dozens of villages and burns alive 500 cretans in Melidoni cave. Sifakas, a brave Cretan dies

Civil war. Panos Kolokotronis, son of Theodoros, is murdered, and Theodoros Kolokotronis is arrested

May and June 1824, Kasos and Psara islands are totally destroyed. Men over 8 are massacred and women-children are driven to slavebazzars

August-October 1824. Naval battles at Kos island, Alicarnassos and Gerontas bay between turkoegyptian fleet under admiral Givraltaris and greek fleet under admiral Miaoulis and admiral Saxtouris

During civil war Karaiskakis is put on trial by Mavrokordatos, Gouras with soldiers from Roumeli invades Peloponnesus, Androutsos is murdered by Gouras and Koletis

6 April 1825. Ibrahm who has come from Egypt in order to eliminate the revolution, with his egyptian army vanquishes greek army, lead by Tzavelas,Makedon Karatasos and Karaiskakis at Kremmydion - Messinia

April 1825. At island Sfaktiria which lays at Pylos harbour, egyptian army crashes greek army. Italian Santaroza, Tsamados, Anagnostaras and hundred others were killed. Castle of Pylos is also surrendered.

27 April. Admiral Miaoulis with fireships of Pipinos, burns egyptian fleet in Methoni's port

Admiral Saxtouris at Kafireas cape of Evoia island, defeats turkish fleet. Turkish admiralship with 66 canons is sunk

20 May, Maniaki of Messenia. Clerical Papaflessas with 300 Romaioi faces 3000 egyptians. All Greeks (Romaioi) were killed

13 June. At Mylloi of Nafplion Romaioi under Makrygiannis, Demetrios Ypsilantis and Konstantinos Makrygiannis defeat turko-egyptian army of Ibrahm pasha

29 July 1825. Kanaris fails to burn egyptian fleet in the port of Alexandreia.

23 April 1825. Kioutaxes pasha with 50000 men starts the siege of Mesologhion. In the city, there are 3000 armed men. Their leaders are Stournaras, Makris, Photomaras, Zervas, Spiros Milios, Swiss Magier, Notis Mpotsaris, Tsogas, Razikotsikas, Iskos, Veikos, Kitsos Tzavelas, Kosomoulis and others.

9 Sept 1825. Greeks of Mesologhion in an assault kill more than 500 enemies, with only 15 losses

HELLENES ORTHODOX or ROMAEOI

Egyptian Ibraem with 10000 troups and many canons comes to reinforce Kioutaxes pasha. Mesologhion 26 December 1825

25 March 1826. Ibraem's officer Hushein beis with troops attack the Kleisova island near Mesologhion. Kitsos Tzavellas with 150 men defend with success the tiny island. Hushein and 1000 turko-egyptians are killed

EXODUS FROM MESOLOGHION - 10 April 1826. Romaeoi divided in 3 corps escape in the darkness of the night. Hunger forces them to leave their city

EXODUS FROM MESOLOGHION - 10 April 1826. Hundreds of women and children are killed. Mothers prefer death than slavery

EXODUS FROM MESOLOGHION - 10 April 1826. Old and invalid persons lead by Christos Kapsalis and bishop of Preveza Iosif blow themselves

EXODUS FROM MESOLOGHION - 10 April 1826. Delacroix paints Greece crying over the ruins of Mesolonghion

May 1826. Egyptians burn villages of Kalavryta and Tripolis provinces. Thousands women and children are killed or sold to slavebazzars of Egypt

21 June 1826. Ibraem with 8000 egyptians invades Mani-South of Peloponnesus. 1000 Maniates and their women fight at Berga village. Enemy troops leave

3 August. Kioutahes pasha occupies Athens and lays siege to the castle of Acropolis where Romaeoi under Makrigiannes, Gouras continue to fight

6 August. Karaiskakis, Kriezotis, Vassos, Peraivos, Panourgias and french Favier fight against Kiotahes, at Haidari near Athens

10 October. Kriezotis and 300 men, run through enemy lines in the castle of Acropolis, carrying ammunition for the sieged. The same is done a month later by french Favier

Karaiskakis leaves the camp of Athens, and with his troops moves to Rumeli to cut off enemy's supplies. On 24 November 1826, Karaiskakis crashes Turkoalbanians at Arahova, killing more than 2000 including the leaders Mustafabeis and Kehagiabeis.

19 January 1827. Drakos Georgios from Suli-Epirus, fights against Omerpasha, at Distomo near Leivadia. Karaiskakis with his men crosses through enemy camp, during the night. Romaeoi force Turks to retreat and retake Amfissa's castle

29 Jan, Romaeoi under Makrigiannis fight against Kioutahes pasha at Pireaus. Karteria the first steamer warship of Greece, takes part in the battle bombing from the sea side

Karaiskakis observing Athens. After his succesful campaign at Central Greece, he returned on February in Eleusis and continued the war against Kioutahes pasha who kept sieging Acropolis

23 April 1827, Georgios Karaiskakis is killed, on his name day, while he was preparing the army for the decisive battle against Kioutahes pasha

Next day, Romaeoi suffer the worst desaster since the beginning of revolution. 1500 Hellenes are killed at Phaliron-Pireaus, fighting turkish invaders. Drakos, Ioannis Notaras, Ntousas, Igglesis, Zervas, Veikos Lampros are among the dead. So Acropolis is surrendered to Kioutaxes pasha or Resitis, the best general of Mahmout Sultan.

Ibraem pasha continues the destruction of Peloponnessus. He burns the fields and cuts all the fruit-bearing trees. His goal is to convert the area to a desert

23 June 1827. Ibraem pasha and Deli Ahmet with turkoegyptian army lay siege to Megha Spilaeon Monastery near Kalavryta. They fail and leave

Many Greeks with Neneko as their leader, change sides. Betraying their compatriots, they declare submission to Ibraem and fight against their country

24 June 1827. After the pressure of European public opinion who showed sympathy for the sufferings of greek people, Great Powers sign at London a treaty ordering peace. Great Powers, foreseeing the creation of a new state, want to gain each one for himself favor, so that they can control east Mediterranean sea

8 Oct 1827. Naval battle at Navarino (Pylos) between turkish-egyptian-tenesian and english-french-russian forces (Kordigton, De Rigny, Heiden were the admirals who had come to observe the ratification of treaty). The battle resulted at the total catastrophe of enemy fleet

8 January 1828. Ioannis Kapodistrias the first governor of Greece, after 400 years of barbaric occupation, comes to Nafplion to take charge of his duties





















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