In 1000 B.C. the island was colonized by the Ionians. They progressed quickly, acquired a fleet, and founded colonies in Chalkidiki, Thrace and Asia Minor. After the persian wars, Andros became part of the Athenian League. Athenians suppressed the islanders, who were forced to be sided with the Spartans, during the Peloponnesian war.

Later it was conquered by Macedonians and in 199 B.C. by Attalos, king of Pergamos. During byzantine period Andros had great development thanks to the silk industry, but also suffered a lot under Saracene raids.

After 1204, Andros was handed to Venetian Doge Marinos Dandolo, in 1233 the island was annexed to the Duchy of Naxos and later was conquered by Jeremias Gyzi. In 1566, turks occupied Andros. Lambros Katsonis who alone, fought turks during 18th century, lost a crucial naval battle near Andros. In 1830, Andros became part of the independent Greek State.