In Limnos it was developed the neolithic civilization of the Aegean. According to Homer, Acheans on their way to Troy, left the injured Philoktites, son of Hercules, on the island. Later Pelasgi, settled on Limnos where they exercized the iron metallurgy. Also, the Argonauts on their long journey to Pontus, rested on the island.

In 510 B.C, Athenians took control of the island and later in 322 B.C., Great Alexander occupied Limnos. It was part of the Byzantine empire, until the fall of 1204, when Limnos was handed to Count Baldwin of Flandra. After the liberation of Constantinople, Byzantines took again control of the island. In 1441, in a battle between Greeks and Turks, Constantine Palaeologus lost his wife, who was pregnant. The castle of Limnos was first built by Andronicus I Comnenus, and was restored by Venetians and Genoans.

Later Turks invaded Limnos, which was under Venetian control, and remained there, until 8th October 1912, when admiral Pavlos Kountouriotes liberated the island. Limnos was under barbaric yoke for 5 centuries.