Samos was initially inhabited around 3000 B.C. by Pelasghi who worshipped the goddess Hera. Later Ionians, from Asia Minor settled on the island. Samos prospered in 532 B.C., when Polycrates ruled the island.

Some of the most important philosophers came from Samos. Among them were Pythagoras who was mathematician, philosopher, physicist, Aristarchos who was astronomer and expressed the theory that earth is revolving around its axis and the sun, Konon, Kalistratos etc. Samos was occupied by Athenians in 441 B.C., and later by Macedonians of Meghas Alexandros.

Samos was part of the Greek Empire of Byzantium, until the fall of Constantinople by the crusaders in 1204, when Count Baldwin of Flandra became ruler of the island. In 1247, Greeks reoccupied the island, which in 1342 was conquered by Turks.

During the Greek Revolution of 1821, Lycourgos Logothetis led the islanders and drove the Turks away. Turks tried to reoccupy but failed. Logothetis was he who convinced Chiotes to revolt against Turks, but Chios did not succeed and was totally destructed in 1822. Samos remained autonomous after 1830, and in 1912 Themistocles Sophoulis declared the island's union with Greece. After 700 dark years of barbaric occupation Samos was greek again.